 # What decoding weight means in NEF?

Hi.

I have a question about one of basic principle of NEF, representation.

I can’t understand decoding process which minimize MSE between input signal and decoded signal.

1. Defining MSE is for finding optimal decoders. Is it right?

2. Is MSE defined between signals at each time t?
For example, input signal is `x(t) = sin(t)`. Then `x(π/6) = 1/2` for `t = π/6`, and `x(π/2) = 1` for `t = π/2`.
So `t = π/6`, decoding weight is changed by minimizing MSE at that time, and then `t = π/2`, decoding weight is changed by minimizing MSE at that time?

That’s correct

The decoders are static, they don’t change over time (unless you are using an online learning rule). The decoder optimization works by sampling a bunch of points across the representation space (e.g., points from -1 to 1), and then optimizing (minimizing the MSE) across all those points. Then when you have a time-varying input like `sin(t)` the values will be moving around within that -1 to 1 space, but we already covered that whole space during the initial optimization so the decoders don’t need to be updated as the signal changes.

Hello. Thank you for your reply.

So, you mean that if I set the radius parameter to 1 when I define an ensemble A, the neurons of the ensemble A are optimized for decoding any value in that range(from -1 to 1) before starting the simulation. OK?

And I have additional questions.

``````import nengo

model = nengo.Network()

with model:
A = nengo.Ensemble(50, dimensions=16)

print(A.n_eval_points)
print(A.eval_points)
``````

Output:

``````None
UniformHypersphere()
``````
1. Why n_eval_points is None?

2. For example, for dimensions = 2, eval_points are inside of a unit circle not near the surface. Is this correct?
(I know the parameter surface(True/False) specifies whether including the surface of the UnitHyperSphere or not.)

Thank you.

Correct

`n_eval_points=None` means that Nengo will choose the number of evaluation points automatically (you can find information about this kind of thing in the API documentation https://www.nengo.ai/nengo/frontend_api.html#nengo.Ensemble; see the description of the `n_eval_points` parameter). You can see the heuristic formula here https://github.com/nengo/nengo/blob/master/nengo/utils/builder.py#L83.

That’s correct (although the points don’t specifically avoid the surface of the sphere, it just means that they are not guaranteed to be on the surface, as they are if surface=True).

OK, I understand!
Thanks, @drasmuss!